The phenomenon of musth in male Asian elephants, Elephas maximus, has long been recognized1. Musth, which has been likened to rutting behaviour in ungulates2, refers to a set of physical and behavioural characteristics displayed periodically by adult male elephants. The most obvious manifestations are a sharp rise in aggressive behaviour, copious secretions from and enlargement of the temporal glands, and the continuous discharge of urine3. It has been speculated that a similar phenomenon occurs in males of the African genus, Loxodonta africana, but most workers have concluded that it does not exist4-7. Here we show that musth does occur in the African elephant and that its manifestations are similar to those in the Asian elephant.