Hubble Expansion in a Euclidean Framework
Abstract
There now seems to be strong evidence for a noncosmological interpretation of the QSO redshift — in any case, so strong that it is of interest to investigate the consequences. The purpose of this paper is to construct a model of the Hubble expansion which is as far as possible from the conventional Big Bang model without coming in conflict with any wellestablished observational results (while introducing no new laws of physics). This leads to an essentially Euclidean metagalactic model (see Table I) with very little mass outside onethird or half of the Hubble radius. The total kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion need only to be about 5% of the rest mass energy. Present observations support backwards in time extrapolation of the Hubble expansion to a ‘minimum size galaxy’R _{ m }, which may have any value in 0<R _{ m }<4×10^{26} cm. Other arguments speak in favor of a size close to the upper value, sayR _{ m }=10^{26} cm (Table II). As this size is probably about 100 times the Schwarzschild limit, an essentially Euclidean description is allowed. The kinetic energy of the Hubble expansion may derive from an intense QSOlike activity in the minimum size metagalaxy, with an energy release corresponding to the annihilation of a few solar masses per galaxy per year. Some of the conclusions based on the Big Bang hypothesis are criticized and in several cases alternative interpretations are suggested. A comparison between the Euclidean and the conventional models is given in Table III.
 Publication:

Astrophysics and Space Science
 Pub Date:
 November 1979
 DOI:
 10.1007/BF00648358
 Bibcode:
 1979Ap&SS..66...23A
 Keywords:

 Big Bang Cosmology;
 Hubble Diagram;
 Quasars;
 Red Shift;
 Universe;
 Euclidean Geometry;
 Homogeneity;
 Kinetic Energy;
 Radio Astronomy;
 Astrophysics