Factorized S-matrices in two dimensions as the exact solutions of certain relativistic quantum field theory models
The general properties of the factorized S-matrix in two-dimensional space-time are considered. The relation between the factorization property of the scattering theory and the infinite number of conservation laws of the underlying field theory is discussed. The factorization of the total S-matrix is shown to impose hard restrictions on two-particle matrix elements: they should satisfy special identities, the so-called factorization equations. The general solution of the unitarity, crossing and factorization equations is found for the S-matrices having isotopic O(N)-symmetry. The solution turns out to have different properties for the cases N = 2 and N ⩾ 3. For N = 2 the general solution depends on one parameter (of coupling constant type), whereas the solution for N ⩾ 3 has no parameters but depends analytically on N. The solution for N = 2 is shown to be an exact soliton S-matrix of the sine-Gordon model (equivalently the massive Thirring model). The total S-matrix of the model is constructed. In the case of N ⩾ 3 there are two "minimum" solutions, i.e., those having a minimum set of singularities. One of them is shown to be an exact S matrix of the quantum O(N)-symmetric nonlinear σ-model, the other is argued to describe the scattering of elementary particles of the Gross-Neveu model.