Lucibufagins: Defensive Steroids from the Fireflies Photinus ignitus and P. marginellus (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)
Feeding tests with thrushes (Hylocichla spp.) led to the isolation of three novel steroid pyrones from fireflies (Photinus ignitus and P. marginellus) responsible, in part at least, for the unpalatability of these insects to the birds. The term lucibufagin is coined for these steroidal pyrones. The closest known relatives of lucibufagins are the familiar cardiotonic bufadienolides, found in certain toads and plants.