Boninite is an unusual, plagioclase-free magnesian andesite, occurring as vesicular pillow lavas and hyaloclastites, accompanied by andesites and dacites in Chichi-jima, Bonin Islands. The Bonin Islands belong to the Izu-Mariana arc and consist of dominant volcanic rocks and subordinate sedimentary rocks of late Oligocene-early Miocene age. The chemistry of boninite is characterized by high contents of MgO. Cr and Ni similar to primitive basalts, but apparently in ill accord with its relatively high SiO2 content of ≃ 55%. The relation of SiO2 to total FeO/MgO ratio indicates that boninite belongs to the cale-alkalic rock suite. The mineralogy of boninite consists of olivine (Fo87-90), orthopyroxene (En87-90), clinopyroxene (Wo38-35En37-44Fs25-21), hydrous glass and Cr-spinel, Experimental studies show that the magma of boninite composition could be in equilibrium with upper mantle peridotite at pressures less than 17 kb and temperatures of 1200-1050°C under high PH2O. It is suggested that boninite is a sea-floor quenched product (900°C) of a direct partial melt of the upper mantle. Related andesites and dacites are considered to be probably fractional crystallization products from the same magma.