Laboratory-scale studies of explosive crater formation and ejecta distribution were performed in cohesionless and cemented Ottawa sand. Gram-size, spherical explosive charges were detonated in carefully prepared homogeneous and two-layered test beds. Craters produced in these studies exhibited many of the morphological features which are present in larger scale explosive experiments, in laboratory-scale impact experiments, and in large impact craters. Craters produced in homogeneous test media exhibited a bowl-to-conical shape. Variations in crater shape were related to the height of burst or depth of burst of the explosive charge and the initial density of the cratering medium. Most significant variations in apparent crater morphology occurred when the cratering medium consisted of a layer of cohesionless sand above a cemented sand layer. These morphological features included: central mounds, concentric rings and terraces on the crater wall, and hummocky mounds and concentric rings in the region surrounding the crater. Formation of these features was related to the depth of the harder lower layer and the strength of the upper medium.
Impact and Explosion Cratering: Planetary and Terrestrial Implications
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- Density (Mass/Volume);
- Distribution (Property);
- Lunar and Planetary Exploration;
- Artificial Craters