Friedman models in general relativity are examined with and without the cosmological constant (CC), with recent evolutionary corrections to the properties of distant galaxies taken into account. Local tests and global tests are considered in turn; a homogeneous and isotropic Universe is assumed, with noninteracting pressure-free dust as dynamically significant. The expansion problem is formulated in terms of various parameters: density parameter, mean density, dimensionless age parameter, deceleration parameter, curvature of space, in sequence. The 'startling fundamental conclusions' are that the Universe is infinite in spatial extent and that it will expand for an infinite future. Reinstatement of CC and constraints on CC are considered; assumption of CC allows a wide range of Universe model types with weak constraints, while abandonment of CC entails an infinite, open, ever-expanding Universe.