Multiple Gaussian targets  The trackonjam problem
Abstract
When a radar with amplitude comparison monopulse arithmetic encounters signals from multiple Gaussian sources it will 'point' to the centroid of the incident radiation. The probability density function (pdf) of the monopulse ratio when N independent samples of difference and sum signals are processed in a maximum likelihood receiver is derived. For finite jamtonoise ratio the estimate has a bias which is independent of N. The variance in the estimate does however depend upon N. Central moments of order less than or equal to 2N  2 exist and are given by a simple formula. Plots of the pdf and its bias and variance for various jamtonoise ratios, locations of the centroid with respect to the boresight direction, and number of samples processed are presented in the accompanying figures.
 Publication:

IEEE Transactions on Aerospace Electronic Systems
 Pub Date:
 November 1977
 DOI:
 10.1109/TAES.1977.308502
 Bibcode:
 1977ITAES..13..620K
 Keywords:

 Jamming;
 Maximum Likelihood Estimates;
 Monopulse Radar;
 Probability Density Functions;
 Radar Detection;
 Signal To Noise Ratios;
 Boresights;
 Electronic Countermeasures;
 Normal Density Functions;
 Signal Processing;
 Variance (Statistics);
 Communications and Radar