Implications of dynamical symmetry breaking
Abstract
An analysis is presented of the physical implications of theories in which the masses of the intermediate vector bosons arise from a dynamical symmetry breaking. In the absence of elementary spinzero fields or bare fermion masses, such theories are necessarily invariant to zeroth order in the weak and electromagnetic gauge interactions under a global U(N)⊗U(N) symmetry, where N is the number of fermion types, not counting color. This symmetry is broken both intrinsically by the weak and electromagnetic interactions and spontaneously by dynamical effects of the strong interactions. An effective Lagrangian is constructed which allows the calculation of leading terms in matrix elements at low energy; this effective Lagrangian is used to analyze the relative direction of the intrinsic and spontaneous symmetry breakdown and to construct a unitarity gauge. Spontaneously broken symmetries which belong to the gauge group of the weak and electromagnetic interactions correspond to fictitious Goldstone bosons which are removed by the Higgs mechanism. Spontaneously broken symmetries of the weak and electromagnetic interactions which are not members of the gauge group correspond to true Goldstone bosons of zero mass; their presence makes it difficult to construct realistic models of this sort. Spontaneously broken elements of U(N)⊗U(N) which are not symmetries of the weak and electromagnetic interactions correspond to pseudoGoldstone bosons, with mass comparable to that of the intermediate vector bosons and weak couplings at ordinary energies. Quark masses in these theories are typically less than 300 GeV by factors of order α. These theories require the existence of "extrastrong" gauge interactions which are not felt at energies below 300 GeV.
 Publication:

Physical Review D
 Pub Date:
 February 1976
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRevD.13.974
 Bibcode:
 1976PhRvD..13..974W