Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole
Abstract
Hawking has predicted that a black hole will emit particles as if it had a temperature proportional to its surface gravity. This paper combines Hawking's quantum formalism with the blackhole perturbation methods of Teukolsky and Press to calculate the emission rate for the known massless particles. Numerical results indicate that a hole of mass M>>10^{17} g should emit a total power output of 2×10^{4}ℏc^{6}G^{2}M^{2}, of which 81% is in neutrinos, 17% is in photons, and 2% is in gravitons. These rates plus an estimate for the emission rates of massive particles from smaller holes allow one to infer that a primordial black hole will have decayed away within the present age of the universe if and only if its initial mass was M<(5+/1)×10^{14} g.
 Publication:

Physical Review D
 Pub Date:
 January 1976
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRevD.13.198
 Bibcode:
 1976PhRvD..13..198P