Flows with significant orientational effects
Abstract
The paper examines some of the consequences for fluidmechanical theory when the subelemental fluid particles are assumed to be of such nature that in addition to the exchange of linear momentum between these particles across the faces of the elementary fluid particles, producing shear stress, there is also the possibility of angular momentum exchange, whose magnitude is represented as a couple stress and is also written as a tensor. The introduction of couple stresses means that the shearstress tensor can no longer be assumed symmetric, and allowance must be made for a nonzero 'internal' angular momentum. Some types of flow situations are identified where consideration of the internal angular momentum vector and the couplestress tensor is required. These include flows of ordered fluids, generalized kinetic theory where the distribution function is allowed to depend on variables of the orientation space, suspension flows, and anisotropic turbulence with asymmetric stress effects. An extensive list of references in which work on these problems has been done is provided.
 Publication:

AIAA Journal
 Pub Date:
 January 1976
 DOI:
 10.2514/3.7049
 Bibcode:
 1976AIAAJ..14...11R
 Keywords:

 Angular Momentum;
 Flow Theory;
 Fluid Mechanics;
 Micropolar Fluids;
 Shear Stress;
 Stress Tensors;
 Anisotropic Media;
 Continuum Mechanics;
 Kinetic Theory;
 Mathematical Models;
 Suspending (Mixing);
 Turbulent Flow;
 Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer