Refraction effects on magnetic field geometry and HF propagation
Abstract
An evaluation is made of the effects of tropospheric and ionospheric refraction on determining the angle between the direction of propagation and the direction of the lines of force of the earth's magnetic field. The effect of tropospheric refraction on HF propagation is also investigated. The tropospheric refractivity model is defined in terms of the CRPL Reference Refractivity Atmosphere  1958, while the electron density in the ionosphere is represented by the Chapman model. The earth's magnetic field is approximated by a series of spherical harmonics. Ray tracings are performed based on the assumption that the propagation media are stratified into layers of constant refractive index. Magnetic fieldorientation calculations are presented for a midlatitude location.
 Publication:

Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics
 Pub Date:
 May 1975
 DOI:
 10.1016/00219169(75)900185
 Bibcode:
 1975JATP...37..751M
 Keywords:

 Atmospheric Refraction;
 Ionospheric Propagation;
 Magnetic Field Configurations;
 Wave Propagation;
 Atmospheric Models;
 Geomagnetism;
 High Frequencies;
 Propagation Modes;
 Ray Tracing;
 Refractivity;
 Spherical Harmonics;
 Troposphere;
 Geophysics