The small-angle multiple scattering of positive and negative pions has been measured for C, Al, Cu and Pb targets throughout an energy range spanning the (3, 3) resonance. The measurements were made using two-dimensional multiwire proportional counters placed in the pion beam. All previous multiple scattering data for electrons and protons as well as these new data for pions are used to recalculate the empirical terms in the Moliere theory of multiple scattering. A second-order Born approximation multiple scattering theory has been devised for spin zero particles. Modified Moliere theory gives a better fit to the experimental data than the second-order Born calculation. Because the updated Moliere theory contains much simpler equations and gives closer agreement with experiment, it is recommended in place of the more sophisticated theory for the interpretation of new experimental data.