Long, reverberating trains of seismic waves produced by impacts and moonquakes may be interpreted in terms of scattering in a surface layer overlying a non-scattering elastic medium. Model seismic experiments are used to qualitatively demonstrate the correctness of the interpretation. Three types of seismograms are found, near impact, far impact and moonquake. Only near impact and moonquake seismograms contain independent information. Details are given in the paper of the modelling of the scattering processes by the theory of diffusion. Interpretation of moonquake and artificial impact seismograms in two frequency bands from the Apollo 12 site indicates that the scattering layer is 25 km thick, with a Q of 5000. The mean distance between scatterers is approximately 5 km at 25 km depth and approximately 2 km at 14 km depth; the density of scatterers appears to be high near the surface, decreasing with depth. This may indicate that the scatterers are associated with cratering, or are cracks that anneal with depth. Most of the scattered energy is in the form of scattered surface waves.