The crustal structure of the Matsushiro area, Central Japan, was studied in two profiles, A and B, with the explosion seismic method to obtain a better understanding of the physical processes of the Matsushiro Swarm Earthquakes. The layer with a velocity of 6.0 km/sec is extremely shallow and becomes deeper west of Chikuma River and around the southeastern end of profile B; there exists a faultlike structure in the most active area. The comparison of hypocenter distributions with the crustal structure shows that almost all swarm earthquakes have their hypocenters below the 6.0 km/sec layer and are confined to the region where this 6.0 km/sec layer is shallow. The velocity gradient in the 6.0 km/ sec layer is determined with certainty by the time-term analysis. In the seismically most active region the anomalous structure is derived not only from the traveltime analysis but also from the amplitude studies; that is, the velocity and the Q-value are smaller than in other regions.