Twistor theory offers a new approach, starting with conformally-invariant concepts, to the synthesis of quantum theory and relativity. Twistors for flat space-time are the SU(2,2) spinors of the twofold covering group O(2,4) of the conformal group. They describe the momentum and angular momentum structre of zero-rest-mass particles. Space-time points arise as secondary concepts corresponding to linear sets in twistor space. They, rather than the null cones, should become “smeared out” on passage to a quantised gravitational theory. Twistors are represented here in two-component spinor terms. Zero-rest-mass fields are described by holomorphic functions on twistor space, on which there is a natural canonical structure leading to a natural choice of canonical quantum operators. The generalisation to curved space can be accomplished in three ways; i) local twistors, a conformally invariant calculus, ii) global twistors, and iii) asymptotic twistors which provide the framework for an S-matrix approach in asymptotically flat space-times. A Hamiltonian scattering theory of global twistors is used to calculate scattering cross-sections. This leads to twistor analogues of Feynman graphs for the treatment of massless quantum electrodynamics. The recent development of methods for dealing with massive (conformal symmetry breaking) sources and fields is briefly reviewed.