A study has been made of the charge-transfer processes whereby neutral atoms of hydrogen are formed in the 3s, 3p, and 3d states as a result of the impact of protons on targets of helium and argon. Impact energies range from 75 to 400 keV. The experimental procedures involve the quantitative measurement of the Balmer-α radiation emitted by the spontaneous decay of atoms in these three states. The contributions of the three different states are separated by a time-of-flight technique that utilizes the different lifetimes of these states. The cross sections decrease rapidly with increasing energy and are greatest for the state of lowest angular-momentum quantum number. For a helium target, comparisons are made with a Born-approximation prediction; there is a marked discrepancy between theory and experiment for the 3p level but good agreement for the 3s and 3d levels.