Vanadium is necessary for growing rats raised inside trace element-controlled, all plastic isolators on a highly purified amino acid diet. Addition of vanadium to the diet enhances growth by over 40 percent. A nearly optimum effect is obtained with 10 micrograms of vanadium per 100 grams of diet in (0.1 part per million), supplied in the form of sodium orthovanadate, as seen from series of tests with levels ranging from 1 to 5 micrograms per 100 grams of diet. Different vanadium compounds show different potencies: sodium orthovanadate was effective, metavanadate less active, and pyrovanadate without activity. Tetravalent vanadium, supplied as vanadyl sulfate or acetate, was utilized but produced smaller responses. The amounts of vanadium required are those normally found in tissues and nutrients.