Tectonic stress and the spectra of seismic shear waves from earthquakes
Abstract
An earthquake model is derived by considering the effective stress available to accelerate the sides of the fault. The model describes near and farfield displacementtime functions and spectra and includes the effect of fractional stress drop. It successfully explains the near and farfield spectra observed for earthquakes and indicates that effective stresses are of the order of 100 bars. For this stress, the estimated upper limit of nearfault particle velocity is 100 cm/sec, and the estimated upper limit for accelerations is approximately 2g at 10 Hz and proportionally lower for lower frequencies. The near field displacement u is approximately given by u(t) = (σ/μ) βr(1  e^{t/r}) where. σ is the effective stress, μ is the rigidity, β is the shear wave velocity, and τ is of the order of the dimension of the fault divided by the shearwave velocity. The corresponding spectrum isΩ(ω)=σβμ1ω(ω2+τ2)1/2The rms average farfield spectrum is given by<Ω(ω)>=<Rθϕ>σβμrRF(ɛ)1ω2+α2where <R_{θϕ}> is the rms average of the radiation pattern; r is the radius of an equivalent circular dislocation surface; R is the distance; F(ɛ) = {[2  2ɛ][1  cos (1.21 ɛω/α)] +ɛ^{2}}^{1/2} ɛ is the fraction of stress drop; and α = 2.21 β/r. The rms spectrum falls off as (ω/α)^{2} at very high frequencies. For values of ω/α between 1 and 10 the rms spectrum falls off as (ω/α)^{1} for ɛ < ∼0.1. At low frequencies the spectrum reduces to the spectrum for a doublecouple point source of appropriate moment. Effective stress, stress drop and source dimensions may be estimated by comparing observed seismic spectra with the theoretical spectra.
 Publication:

Journal of Geophysical Research
 Pub Date:
 September 1970
 DOI:
 10.1029/JB075i026p04997
 Bibcode:
 1970JGR....75.4997B
 Keywords:

 Seismology: Seismic sources (mechanisms;
 magnitude;
 frequency spectrum;
 space and time distribution);
 Seismology: Strong motions and shock waves