In continuation of research carried out earlier 1), systematic measurements of the attainable efficiency and the background sensitivity of a new thermal neutron detector are reported. The neutron detection is due to the measurement of conversion electrons produced by the prompt neutron capture γ-rays in Gd (natural Gd and 157Gd). For the detection of conversion electrons surface barrier detectors are used. A detection efficiency exceeding 40% can be obtained. A further advantage is the extremely small size of these detectors and their low sensitivity for background radiation (fast neutrons and γ-rays).