Symmetry Breaking in NonAbelian Gauge Theories
Abstract
According to the Goldstone theorem, any manifestly covariant brokensymmetry theory must exhibit massless particles. However, it is known from previous work that such particles need not appear in a relativistic theory such as radiationgauge electrodynamics, which lacks manifest covariance. Higgs has shown how the massless Goldstone particles may be eliminated from a theory with broken U(1) symmetry by coupling in the electromagnetic field. The primary purpose of this paper is to discuss the analogous problem for the case of broken nonAbelian gauge symmetries. In particular, a model is exhibited which shows how the number of massless particles in a theory of this type is determined, and the possibility of having a broken nonAbelian gauge symmetry with no massless particles whatever is established. A secondary purpose is to investigate the relationship between the radiationgauge and Lorentzgauge formalisms. The Abeliangauge case is reexamined, in order to show that, contrary to some previous assertions, the Lorentzgauge formalism, properly handled, is perfectly consistent, and leads to physical conclusions identical with those reached using the radiation gauge.
 Publication:

Physical Review
 Pub Date:
 March 1967
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRev.155.1554
 Bibcode:
 1967PhRv..155.1554K