Plasmons, Gauge Invariance, and Mass
Abstract
Schwinger has pointed out that the YangMills vector boson implied by associating a generalized gauge transformation with a conservation law (of baryonic charge, for instance) does not necessarily have zero mass, if a certain criterion on the vacuum fluctuations of the generalized current is satisfied. We show that the theory of plasma oscillations is a simple nonrelativistic example exhibiting all of the features of Schwinger's idea. It is also shown that Schwinger's criterion that the vector field m≠0 implies that the matter spectrum before including the YangMills interaction contains m=0, but that the example of superconductivity illustrates that the physical spectrum need not. Some comments on the relationship between these ideas and the zeromass difficulty in theories with broken symmetries are given.
 Publication:

Physical Review
 Pub Date:
 April 1963
 DOI:
 10.1103/PhysRev.130.439
 Bibcode:
 1963PhRv..130..439A