Electronic Structures of Molecules XI. Electroaffinity, Molecular Orbitals and Dipole Moments
Abstract
A convenient criterion for defining equal electronegativity of two atoms is stated in terms of coefficients in LCAO approximate molecular orbitals. Connections between relative electronegativities, coefficients in LCAO orbitals, effective charges on atoms in partially polar molecules, and dipole moments, are then analyzed, and various equations are obtained expressing these connections. The discussion is largely applicable to polyatomic as well as to diatomic molecules. A theoretical derivation is given for an empirical equation, found by Pauling, which forms a basis for the latter's approximate scale of relative electronegativities. Pauling's and other possible approximate scales are discussed, and it is shown how an approximate ``absolute electroaffinity'' can conveniently be defined on each scale. A very rough theoretical justification is given for the empirically observed proportionality between relative electronegativities obtained from Pauling's and from the writer's scale. The necessary existence of a ``homopolar dipole'' contribution to the electric moment of any bond is shown, provided the atoms forming the bond are of unequal size. By ``homopolar dipole'' is meant a contribution which would not vanish, for atoms of unequal size, even if they are of equal electroaffinity. Dipole moments of H_{2}O, NH_{3} and HX are briefly discussed. It is concluded that the dipole moment scale of electronegativity is probably not well founded. An important object of the paper is to show how electroaffinity and other data can be used in the approximate determination of the polarities of molecular orbitals and so of bonds, the results being expressed both in terms of coefficients in LCAO molecular orbitals and in terms of effective charges transferred. Applications are made to the electronic structures of various diatomic molecules, especially HI, HI^{+}, HO^{—}, ClO^{—}.
 Publication:

Journal of Chemical Physics
 Pub Date:
 September 1935
 DOI:
 10.1063/1.1749731
 Bibcode:
 1935JChPh...3..573M